• vi
  • en

Water resources in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia


The availability of water resources within the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is a common question that many residents of the kingdom and foreigners inquire about. The reason is that Saudi Arabia relies heavily on valleys and underground water sources for drinking water as there are no rivers. We will provide you with an understanding of the most important water sources in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Water resources in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Water resources in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Currently, water resources in the of KSA rely on three basic sources for water extraction: groundwater, desalinated seawater, and recycled water commonly used in electricity production. Additionally, Saudi Arabia also depends on surface water sources on the Earth's surface, such as valleys, seasonal rivers, springs, and dams.

Furthermore, the Saudi Arabian government is digging thousands of wells to extract water from aquifers. This water source is used in food production, beverages, household cleaning, personal hygiene, and some other industries.


Groundwater refers to water present beneath the Earth's surface in the cavities of soil and the fractures of rock formations. A group of these formations is called an "aquifer" when it can yield a usable amount of water.


In Saudi Arabia, groundwater is categorized into two types: renewable groundwater and non-renewable groundwater.

Renewable groundwater

Most of the excess water flow infiltrates the ground to replenish non-artesian aquifers located along river valleys and beneath alluvial fans and deltas in different regions. These aquifers are often unconfined, small in size, and have groundwater levels that respond quickly to local rainfall. Some of the shallow aquifers are Al-Khaf, Tawil, Al-Urma, Al-Jawf, Sakaka, Al-Jala, and Al-Jubaila. The estimated total volume of renewable groundwater is about 2.8 billion cubic meters per year.

Non-renewable groundwater

Groundwater in deep aquifer layers is non-renewable and confined within sand formations and limestone with a thickness of approximately 300 meters at depths ranging from 150 to 1500 meters. These layers of groundwater, composed mainly of sandstone and limestone, extend over thousands of square kilometers with limited natural recharge. Among these groundwater layers, Al-Saq, Al-Wajid, Tabuk, Al-Manjoor-Durma, Al-Wasea-Al-Bayad, Umm Radmah, and Dammam-Newgin are considered the main aquifers.

Groundwater is one of the most important water sources in the KSA, utilized in various sectors. Modern equipment and technologies are used to locate, assess, pump, and exploit groundwater resources. This water source is used in areas such as drinking water supply, agriculture, industry, and other sectors.

Groundwater pollution is less visible and more challenging to clean compared to pollution in rivers and lakes. Groundwater pollution is mainly caused by improper land-based waste disposal, including industrial and household chemicals, landfill sites, excessive agricultural fertilizers and pesticides, industrial waste reservoirs, treated mine water, underground oil tank leaks, pipelines, sewage sludge, and more.

Desalination of seawater

Desalination of seawater

Saltwater accounts for a significant proportion of the surrounding water bodies in the Kingdom, and desalinated water comprises about 50% of the water consumed in Saudi Arabia. It is considered one of the most important water sources in the Kingdom, where desalinated seawater is used for drinking and agricultural purposes after undergoing salt removal and suitable treatment for potable water. Countries worldwide desalinate seawater for drinking purposes; however, this process is costly and inefficient. Economically, it requires substantial effort and financial resources to operate over 35 desalination plants to produce more than six million cubic meters of water per day as of 2015. In terms of environmental pollution, excessive production leads to the generation of waste that cannot be adequately treated and is discharged into the environment.

Wastewater treatment

The demand for clean water is increasing due to population growth, climate change, and the expansion of industries in Saudi Arabia. In most countries worldwide, wastewater is required to be recycled and used in certain sectors such as agriculture and other industries.

In Saudi Arabia, there is a large wastewater treatment and water purification facility located at the southern border of Jeddah city, near the Al-Khumra Industrial District. The treatment process consists of four stages with a capacity of approximately 250,000 cubic meters per day.

Wastewater is treated in a total of 99 wastewater treatment plants. In 2019, the volume of treated wastewater for reuse reached 4.9 million cubic meters per day, equivalent to 17.26% of the total treated wastewater volume. The volume of treated wastewater is expected to increase by 4% annually from 2025 to 2050.

Surface water

Surface water

Surface flow at dams is considered one of the important water sources in Saudi Arabia, as the average recorded rainfall in 2019 was 59 mm, and the estimated surface runoff at dams was about 970 million cubic meters. However, the country faces a severe annual decrease in rainfall, except for the Asir region in the southwest of the Kingdom, which receives an average annual rainfall of about 300 mm.

There are 522 dams throughout the country, with a total capacity of 2.3 billion cubic meters, to facilitate water storage and supplement surface flow. The total water consumption by the dams is approximately 1.6 billion cubic meters per year.

Due to water pollution issues, Saudi Arabia is facing challenges in water purification. Karofi is a leading water filtration brand in Vietnam. With advanced technologies being researched and applied to our latest products, the Reverse Osmosis (RO) filtration technology is the most suitable for the Saudi Arabian market as it can remove 99% of bacteria, viruses, and harmful substances from the water source.

Here are some of Karofi's latest products:

KAD-N69 Hot and Cold Water Purifier

The Karofi KAD-N69 Hot and Cold Water Purifier is entirely new with a modern frameless glass design and breakthrough features to provide a new user experience. Here are some prominent features of this model:

3 Water Modes - Fulfilling the family's needs

3 Water Modes - Fulfilling the family's needs

The Karofi KAD-N69 Water Purifier is a modern and convenient device designed to meet the full drinking water needs of a family. With 3 water modes including hot water, cold water, and purified water, this water purifier offers flexibility and convenience for every family member.

The hot water mode of the Karofi KAD-N69 Water Purifier allows you to easily produce hot water quickly for brewing tea, coffee, or cooking dishes that require hot water. Without waiting for long and saving time, you can enjoy a cup of hot water whenever you want.

The cold water mode of the Karofi KAD-N69 Water Purifier brings a refreshing and cool experience during hot summer days.

In addition to the hot and cold modes, the Karofi KAD-N69 Water Purifier also provides a purified water mode. Through the advanced RO filtration technology, the purifier eliminates 99% of impurities, bacteria, and potentially harmful compounds in the water. This ensures that you and your family always have access to clean and safe drinking water.

Powerful 10 stage SMAX Filtration System

The exclusive 10 stage SMAX Pro filtration system in the KAD-N69 Hot and Cold Water Purifier brings significant improvements in efficiency and lifespan. With this advanced technology, the KAD-N69 water purifier ensures superior water purification capability and double the lifespan compared to conventional filtration systems.

The premium functional filter in the KAD-N69 purifier is also noteworthy. The Hydrogen Plus filter has the ability to double the amount of Hydrogen in the water, providing hydrogen-rich water for the body. Additionally, combined with the 3 filters—Orp Alkaline, Tourmaline, and Hydrogen Plus—the purifier produces water with optimized Hydro, pH, and Orp levels, ensuring a rich and beneficial water source for health.

With its modern design, advanced features, the Karofi KAD-N69 Water Purifier is suitable for any space in the family. Easy to operate and maintain, the purifier brings convenience and savings to the household. You don't need to buy bottled water or worry about the quality of drinking water. You can confidently use the Karofi KAD-N69 Water Purifier to meet all your family's drinking water needs.

Karofi KAE-S85 Hot and Cold Alkaline water Ionizer purifier

The Karofi KAE-S85 water ionizer is the world's first versatile alkaline water ionizer, exclusively developed by Karofi in Vietnam. Here are some notable features of the machine:

Alkaline Ionized Water

The KAE-S85 is a groundbreaking product in the field of healthcare, providing users with the highest level of health care. With super hydrogen alkaline ionized water and an optimized ORP (Oxidation-Reduction Potential) of -600mV, the KAE-S85 offers superior water quality and safety.

Super hydrogen alkaline ionized water has the ability to slow down the aging process and neutralize excess acidity in the body. This helps eliminate toxins and prevent certain dangerous diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and digestive issues. With daily use of the KAE-S85, you will experience improved health and significant enhancement of overall well-being.

The special feature of the KAE-S85 lies in its ability to personalize user preferences. With three different pH levels, namely 8.5, 9, and 9.5, you can actively choose the pH level that suits your individual needs. Different pH levels have varying effects on the body, and the KAE-S85 allows you to enjoy the benefits of each pH level in a flexible and easy manner.

Voice Call Technology

Voice Call Technology

Voice Call Technology has brought a remarkable breakthrough in water retrieval, allowing users to enjoy 8 different functions of high-quality water simply through voice commands. With voice-activated instructions, the experience of getting water has never been easier and more convenient.

By simply saying "Hi Karofi" to activate the Voice Call Technology, users can effortlessly select from 8 different water functions. With simple commands, users can enjoy the following types of water:

Boiling Water: Retrieve boiling hot water for making tea or cooking.

Hot Water: Retrieve hot water for hot beverages or for use in cooking.

Milk Mixing: Retrieve warm water for preparing baby formula or mixing beverages with milk.

Cold Water: Retrieve cold water suitable for direct consumption or making ice cubes.

Purified Water: Retrieve water free from impurities, suitable for drinking or medical procedures.

Alkaline Water 8: Retrieve water with an alkaline pH level of 8.5, beneficial for health and acid balance in the body.

Alkaline Water 9: Retrieve water with an alkaline pH level of 9, providing energy and boosting health.

Alkaline Water 10: Retrieve water with an alkaline pH level of 9.5, enhancing the immune system and soothing acid-related symptoms in the body.

Additionally, users can easily stop the water retrieval process by saying "Stop." With Voice Call Technology, the act of getting water becomes not only more convenient than ever but also provides a sense of enjoyment and exploration of various health-enhancing water types with just a simple command.

If you are interested in Karofi's new product lines and would like to know more detailed information, please contact us via Whatsapp at +84837748966 or visit our website: Karofiglobal.com/en.

Posts same category


Water pollution is harmful to human health as it causes various diseases. Polluted water can contain bacteria, viruses, and parasites that can transmit diseases to humans ...


Maintaining adequate hydration during the summer is essential to prevent illnesses and other important factors that you will find in this article. Summer brings ...


What diseases are caused by water pollution ? What would life be like without water? How would we survive? And what would we do? Here, Karofi does not mean that water ...


Currently, in the Saudi Arabia market, there are many types of bottled water made from Artesian water. So what is Artesian water , and is it safe to drink? Let's clarify ...


Water is crucial for our daily lives and overall health. Our bodies are composed of over 60% water, and we cannot survive for more than three days without it. The effects ...


Important reasons for using household water purifiers include ensuring that the water your family drinks and uses for cooking is safe and clean. Consequences of consuming ...

Name *

Full name cannot be left blank!

Country *

Country không được để trống!

Email *

Email cannot be left blank!

Email invalidate!

Phone *

Phone number can not be left blank!

Phone number is not in the correct format!